With Trump promising a COVID-19 vaccine ‘very soon,’ industry developers pledge to keep politics out of science

The heads of nine biopharmaceutical companies issued a letter early Tuesday pledging to fully vet their COVID-19 candidate vaccines before asking for federal approval to market them.

“We, the undersigned biopharmaceutical companies, want to make clear our on-going commitment to developing and testing potential vaccines for COVID-19 in accordance with high ethical standards and sound scientific principles,” the statement said.

The statement comes amid increasing concern among public health officials, scientists and doctors that the White House might bring significant political pressure to bear on the Food and Drug Administration to approve a vaccine before the Nov. 3 presidential election.

All nine companies are individually or jointly developing a candidate COVID-19 vaccine supported at least in part with federal dollars, which so far amounts to more than $10 billion. They are AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna Inc., Novavax Inc., Merck, Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline, and Pfizer Inc, which is developing a vaccine with BioNTech, another signatory.

A widely used vaccine will be essential to bring the COVID-19 pandemic under control. Industry officials are worried that the political climate is tarnishing the process and will make people more hesitant to get a vaccine when there is one.

The leadership of the industry group Biotechnology Innovation Organization, or BIO, issued a similar statement late last week calling for a testing process “conducted according to best practices to assure credibility of the data, as well as the ethical participation of a diverse population of subjects.” The BIO statement also called on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to “maintain its historic independence as the gold-standard international regulatory body, free from external influence.”

Inside a lab for COVID-19 vaccine study on Aug. 13, 2020, in Hollywood, Florida.

The industry promise to stick to scientific principles and keep politics out of the approval process comes after several weeks in which President Donald Trump repeatedly emphasized that a vaccine probably would be ready for public use before the election.

At a White House news conference Monday, Trump said a vaccine “will be very safe and very effective, and it will be delivered very soon.” He added, “Could even have it during the month of October.”

Trump also has said that if a vaccine was not ready by then, it was because of a “deep state” conspiracy against him.

The fastest vaccine ever developed took four years, although work on a COVID-19 vaccine has been happening at a much faster pace, thanks to advances in technology, research on similar but much smaller coronavirus outbreaks, a concerted effort by the companies, and federal support.

Three of the candidate vaccines are being tested in Phase 3 trials involving 30,000 people each, half of whom will get the active vaccine and half a placebo.

Dr. Stephen Hahn, head of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, has repeatedly said he would not approve a vaccine until it has been shown to be safe and effective. But he has also said there might be an intermediate endpoint – short of the completion of a 30,000-person trial – that could meet his standards for a so-called emergency use authorization.

The statement from the vaccine developers did not address whether they would consider such an endpoint acceptable, but it did say that they would “only submit for approval or emergency use authorization after demonstrating safety and efficacy through a Phase 3 clinical study that is designed and conducted to meet requirements of expert regulatory authorities such as FDA.”

None of the companies would comment Monday beyond what was in the statement.

“This letter appears to be in response to a growing fear in this country that the FDA might not do its job – specifically, to protect Americans from products that are unsafe or ineffective,” said Dr. Paul Offit, a pediatrician and vaccine expert at the University of Pennsylvania. “When we get to the point that we don’t trust the FDA, we’re in trouble.”

Given the statements of coming out of Washington D.C. about vaccines, a letter from pharmaceutical companies pledging to follow the science isn’t surprising, said Art Reingold, head of the epidemiology and biostatistics division at the University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health.

“I would like to think that would always be true, but perhaps the pledge helps reassure some of the many people who are anxious/worried about the vaccine being developed at ‘Warp Speed,’” he said.

Such a statement from industry is unprecedented, said Dr. William Schaffner, an expert in infectious diseases and immunization policy at Vanderbilt University in Nashville.

“I’ve only been doing vaccines for 40 years and I’ve never heard of anything like this before,” he said. “Having the companies themselves issue this statement I think will offer some reassurance. Not completely, but some reassurance to the medical profession.”

Schaffner said he has heard repeated concerns from medical colleagues across the country about Trump and Hahn’s comments, which he said have created “an enormous amount of unease in the very professional people who would be expected to provide strong endorsement of the vaccine, promote it and often give it in their own offices and public health departments.”

Doctors and other medical professionals must be convinced  the vaccine is worthwhile, he said. “If they hold back, that could be an enormous impediment to widespread use of the vaccine.”

Half a million US children have been diagnosed with Covid-19

(CNN)Half a million US children have been diagnosed with Covid-19, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Children’s Hospital Association.

The groups said 70,630 new child cases were reported from August 20 through September 3. This is a 16% increase in child cases over two weeks, bringing up the total to at least 513,415 cases, the groups said in their weekly report on pediatric coronavirus cases.
“These numbers are a chilling reminder of why we need to take this virus seriously,” American Academy of Pediatrics President Dr. Sally Goza said in a news release. “While much remains unknown about COVID-19, we do know that the spread among children reflects what is happening in the broader communities,” she added.
“A disproportionate number of cases are reported in Black and Hispanic children and in places where there is high poverty. We must work harder to address societal inequities that contribute to these disparities.”
Children represent nearly 10% of all reported cases in the US, according to the report. The child cases are likely underreported because the tally relies on state data that is inconsistently collected.
“This rapid rise in positive cases occurred over the summer, and as the weather cools, we know people will spend more time indoors,” Dr. Sean O’Leary, the vice chair of the AAP Committee on Infectious Diseases, said in a news release.
“Now we are heading into flu season. We must take this seriously and implement the public health measures we know can help,” O’Leary added.
“That includes wearing masks, avoiding large crowds, and maintaining social distance. In addition, it will be really important for everyone to get an influenza vaccine this year. These measures will help protect everyone, including children.”
The AAP recommends that any child 6 months or older get a flu shot — in line with recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Pediatricians say it’s more important than ever to make sure kids get either the flu shot or the protective nasal spray before the end of October.
That’s because having two respiratory disease circulating at the same time — flu and coronavirus — will be confusing to doctors, parents and caregivers. Plus, hospitals and clinics could become overwhelmed with the double burden.

The two viruses cause similar symptoms but a study published Tuesday in JAMA Network Open found that children hospitalized with Covid-19 were more likely to have fever, aches, diarrhea and vomiting than were children with influenza.

Children with Covid-19 also tended to be older and have at least one underlying health condition.
Covid-19 and seasonal flu in children lead to similar rates of hospitalization, intensive care admission, and need for a ventilator to help breathing, the study found. The CDC says 188 children died from flu over the 2019-2020 season.

Russia’s Covid-19 vaccine generated an immune response, study says

(CNN)A Covid-19 vaccine developed and tested in Russia generated neutralizing antibodies in dozens of study subjects, and while the vaccine often caused side effects such as fever, those side effects were mostly mild, according to data published Friday in the medical journal The Lancet.

Russia drew criticism when it announced the world’s first approved coronavirus vaccine for public use in August — even before crucial Phase 3 trials had been completed.
In the Phase 1 and 2 studies of the vaccine, which is named Sputnik V, all 76 study participants developed antibodies to the virus that causes Covid-19, according to Friday’s report in The Lancet.
The levels of neutralizing antibody response were similar to the immune response that people had after naturally recovering from Covid-19, according to the study.
A handout photo released by Russian Healthcare ministry (Minzdrav) shows containers with a newly registered vaccine against coronavirus in Moscow, Russia.

The researchers also looked at responses from T cells, another component of the immune system.
“[Outcomes from] the trial also suggest the vaccines also produce a T cell response within 28 days,” the researchers wrote.

Larger trials needed

Scientists not involved in the study said that, while the results are a positive sign, only larger, Phase 3 trials can confirm whether the vaccine actually prevents illness with Covid-19.
“The data on the Russian vaccine studies reported in The Lancet are encouraging,” said Brendan Wren, professor of microbial pathogenesis, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
In the study, half of the participants developed fevers and 42% developed headaches. In addition, about 28% experienced weakness and 24% had joint pain.
The article did not say how long these side effects lasted but said “most adverse events were mild.”
The vaccine was registered in Russia in August, before it had gone through large-scale trials. The researchers at the Gamaleya National Research Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology in Russia received approval on August 26 to do a Phase 3 trial, which is expected to have 40,000 volunteers, according to a press release from The Lancet.
Doctors warn against rushing a Covid-19 vaccine as Fauci says it’s critical to have a safe Labor Day
The researchers are already distributing the vaccine to high-risk groups, according to Kirill Dmitriev, head of the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), which is financing Russian vaccine research.
Gamaleya is using adenoviruses in their Covid-19 vaccines; this is the same approach used in the vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca. The adenovirus delivers genetic material for the spike protein that sits atop the virus that causes Covid-19, and that genetic material is designed to generate an immune response to the virus.
Adenoviruses can cause a variety of symptoms, including the common cold. The researchers manipulate the virus so it will not replicate and cause illness.
The Gamaleya vaccine is given in two doses, and each dose uses a different adenovirus vector.
“Using two different viruses gives a theoretical advantage,” said Dr. Paul Offit, a vaccinologist at the University of Pennsylvania.
Naor Bar-Zeev, deputy director of the International Vaccine Access Center at Johns Hopkins University, said in a linked comment that the studies are “encouraging but small,” according to The Lancet. Bar-Zeev was not involved in the Russian study, but peer reviewed it.
Dmitriev, CEO of the RDIF, said that the trial results confirm the “high safety and efficacy” of the vaccine, adding in a statement Friday that the results are “a powerful response to skeptics who unreasonably criticized the Russian vaccine.”

Mass trials begin next week

Russia has previously said it plans to begin mass vaccination of citizens in October, and the country’s health ministry has said the country’s frontline medical staff and teachers will be the first vaccinated.
Post-registration trials of the vaccine will begin in Moscow next week, the city’s mayor, Sergey Sobyanin, said Friday.
More than 5,000 people have already signed up to participate in the trials, according to Sobyanin, who spoke during a video conference with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Here’s why it’s unlikely we’ll have a coronavirus vaccine by Election Day
Sobyanin also announced that he had been vaccinated with the first of the vaccine’s two shots.
The mayor said polls suggest around half of Russian citizens are skeptical about the vaccine.
“According to the polls, around half doubt whether they need to get vaccinated for coronavirus, whether it is developed enough or not. Two months ago, there were almost 90% skeptics,” said Sobyanin.
Without completed Phase 3 trials, Russia has not proven to the world Sputnik V works, though Dmitriev has previously said several countries in Latin America, the Middle East and Asia have expressed interest in procuring the vaccine.
Russia isn’t the only country fast tracking its vaccine — China approved an experimental coronavirus vaccine in June for members of its military, and in August, it emerged the country had been using the vaccine on those in “high risk” professions — such as frontline medical professionals and border inspectors — since July.

Illinois COVID-19: IL reports 1,381 new coronavirus cases, 8 deaths

CHICAGO (WLS) — Illinois public health officials announced 1,381 new cases of COVID-19 Monday along with eight additional deaths.

The total number of COVID-19 cases in Illinois now stands at 250,961 with 8,179 deaths.

The preliminary seven-day positivity rate from August 31 – September 6 is 4.2%.

Within the past 24 hours, the state has processed 28,975 specimens for a total of 4,447,347

As of Sunday night, 1,484 people are hospitalized with COVID-19, with 352 patients in the ICU and 137 patients on ventilators.

The eight additional COVID-19 deaths include:

-Coles County: 1 male 70s
-Cook County: 1 male 50s, 1 male 60s, 1 male 70s

-DuPage County: 1 male 70s
-Jefferson County: 1 male 90s
-LaSalle County: 1 female 80s
-Perry County: 1 female 90s

Health officials concerned about Labor Day weekend gatherings

 

Health officials are warning people to take precautions while getting together with friends and family this Labor Day weekend.

Recent numbers have shown home gatherings including backyard cookouts with family and friends are now a main driver of an increase in COVID 19 numbers.

The CDC posted guidelines for the long weekend, including reminding friends and family to stay home if they are sick, encourage social distancing, host gatherings outdoors if possible, wear masks, wash your hands often, use hand sanitizer and try to limit the number of things you share.

“What we recommend at the beginning of a gathering is to announce the rules. We learn to do these things, we’re gonna stay six feet apart, gonna wear masks and we’re gonna wash our hands before and after a meal and I think there would be some peace if we collectively all kind of have that conversation,” Cook County Chair of Family Medicine, Dr. Mark Loafman said.

9 vaccine makers sign safety pledge in race for Covid-19 vaccine

(CNN)Nine biopharmaceutical companies have signed a joint pledge to uphold “high ethical standards,” suggesting they won’t seek premature government approval for Covid-19 vaccines.

This pledge, released on Tuesday, states: “We, the undersigned biopharmaceutical companies, want to make clear our on-going commitment to developing and testing potential vaccines for COVID-19 in accordance with high ethical standards and sound scientific principles.”
The companies that signed the pledge include AstraZeneca, BioNTech, Moderna, Pfizer, Novavax, Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson and Merck.
The pledge comes at a time when President Trump has repeatedly pushed for a quick vaccine timeline — even referencing Election Day in November.
“[It’s] going to be done in a very short period of time — could even have it during the month of October,” the President said at a press briefing on Monday. “We’ll have the vaccine soon, maybe before a special date. You know what date I’m talking about.”
On August 6, Trump said he was “optimistic” a vaccine would be ready by November 3.
The pledge also comes just about a week after US Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn said in an interview with the Financial Times that the agency could consider emergency use authorization or approval for a Covid-19 vaccine before critical Phase 3 trials are complete.
The nine companies on Tuesday wrote that they pledge to “Only submit for approval or emergency use authorization after demonstrating safety and efficacy through a Phase 3 clinical study that is designed and conducted to meet requirements of expert regulatory authorities such as FDA.”
Pfizer and Moderna have vaccines in late-stage, Phase 3 clinical trials in the United States; Johnson & Johnson is preparing to start one. Vaccine makers are seeking to enroll at least 30,000 volunteers so they can tell whether the vaccine is really safe and protects people from infection.
The vaccine developers involved in the pledge to maintain high ethical standards for vaccines felt the need to reiterate their commitment to high ethical standards and scientific processes, Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla said on NBC’s Today show on Tuesday.
“With increasing public concerns about the processes we are using to develop these vaccines, and even more importantly, the processes that will be used to evaluate these vaccines, we saw it as critical to come out and reiterate our commitment that we will develop our products, our vaccines, using the highest ethical standards and the most scientific [rigorous] processes,” Bourla said.
The nine vaccine makers said they will stand with science, at a time when the world is looking to science — in particular to a vaccine — to help bring us to the end of the pandemic, Bourla said.
“The only rival here is the virus, and the time to get the vaccine to this,” Bourla said.
He called the pledge between nine vaccine makers “historic” and “an unprecedented moment.”

Masks For Coronavirus

We are a professional mask factory in China, providing all types of masks in accordance with international standards to the world. If you have any needs, please contact us.

E-mail : xiyuan.diangao@gmail.com

 

China’s current mask standards
China’s mask standards are currently divided into three categories: labor protection, medical protection and daily protection.
1.1 Labor insurance mask standard
China’s labor protection mask standard adopts GB2626-2006 “Respiratory Protective Products-Self-priming Filtering Anti-particulate Respirator”. This standard was issued by the State Administration of Work Safety on March 27, 2006. It mainly targets industrial dust masks, and specifies the technical requirements, detection methods and identification of self-priming filter anti-particulate respirators. The standard classifies masks into 90 (KN90, KP90), 95 (KN95, KP95), and 100 (KN100, KP100) grades according to the filtering efficiency of the masks. The KN series uses sodium chloride particles for detection, and the KP series uses oil particles for detection. In terms of filtration efficiency, 85L / min flow rate is used for testing. KN90 / KP90 should be ≥90.0%, KN95 / KP95 should be ≥95.0%; KN100 / KP100 should be ≥99.97%. The requirements of the respiratory impedance are: the inhalation resistance does not exceed 350pa, and the exhalation resistance does not exceed 250pa.
1.2 Standards for medical and health masks
China has two medical mask standards.
YY0469-2011 specifies the technical requirements for medical surgical masks, which are applicable to disposable masks worn by clinical medical personnel during invasive procedures. The standard BFE test flow is 28.3L / min, and the filtration efficiency requirement is ≥95%; the PFE test flow is 30L / min, and the filtration efficiency requirement is ≥30%; the respiratory resistance test flow is 8L / min, and the test area is 5.06cm2. The resistance requirement is ≤49mmH2O; there is a requirement for penetration of synthetic blood: 2mL of synthetic blood is sprayed to the mask at a pressure of 10.7KPa (80 mmHg), and there should be no penetration inside the mask.
190GB19083-2010 specifies the technical requirements, test methods, signs and instructions for use of medical protective masks, as well as packaging, transportation and storage. It is suitable for self-priming filtering medical protective masks that filter particulates in the air and block droplets, blood, body fluids, secretions, etc. in the medical work environment. The standard is tested at a flow rate of 85. The suction resistance of the mask does not exceed 343.2Pa (35 mm H2O). Synthetic blood penetration requirements: 2mL of synthetic blood is sprayed to the mask at a pressure of 10.7KPa (80 mmHg), and there should be no penetration inside the mask. Masks are classified according to filtering efficiency: filtering efficiency of level 1 ≥95%, filtering efficiency of level 2 ≥99%, and filtering efficiency of level 3 ≥99.97 [1].
1.3 Standards for daily protective masks
Because of different use environments and different main objects of protection, any of the first two types of masks cannot be fully applied to civil anti-fog and haze. In order to protect the health of people’s daily life, GB / T 32610-2016 “Technical Specifications for Daily Protective Masks” was released. The standard innovatively achieves a way to match the degree of air pollution in the classification of masks, so that people can selectively wear them according to the level of the mask under different levels of pollution to achieve the purpose of preventing fine particles from being inhaled.
The reform standard uses two grading methods. One is the level of protection effect that integrates indicators such as leakage rate, and the other is the classification of filtration efficiency. The protective effect is divided into A, B, C, and D grades. Filtration efficiency is divided into Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ grades, which are tested by salty medium and oily medium respectively. Grade Ⅰ salt / oil filtration efficiency is ≥99%, Grade Ⅱ salt / oil filtration efficiency is ≥95%, Grade Ⅲ salt filtration efficiency is ≥90% and oil filtration efficiency is ≥80%. The standard test flow is 85L / min. When the protection level of the mask reaches level A, its filtering efficiency level should be Ⅰ or Ⅱ. When the protection level of the mask is B, C, D, its filtering efficiency level should be Ⅱ or Ⅲ.
2 Current international mask standards
International mask standards are currently divided into two categories: labor protection and medical protection. Different countries have different mask standards, so only the ones with the most influence are listed here.
2.1 American Labor Protection Mask Standards: NIOSH Standards (Title 42 CFR Part 84)
标准 This standard is classified according to the different test media and filtration efficiency. The N series uses sodium chloride particles for detection, the R series uses non-oily suspended particles and sweaty suspended particles for a period of eight hours, and the R series uses protective non-oily suspended particles and sweaty suspended particles for no time limit. The standard test flow rate is 85L / min, the filtration efficiency of N95 / R95 / P95 is ≥95.0%; the filtration efficiency of N99 / R99 / P99 is ≥99.0%; the filtration efficiency of N100 / R100 / P100 is ≥99.97%. The requirements of the respiratory impedance are: the inhalation resistance does not exceed 350pa, and the exhalation resistance does not exceed 250pa.
2.2 EU labor protection mask standard EN149: 2001 + A1-2009
The standard is classified according to the filtration efficiency. Two kinds of particles are used for detection, and the test flow rate is 95L / min. The penetration rate of sodium chloride and oily particles of FFP1 are ≤20%; the penetration rate of sodium chloride and oily particles of FFP2 are ≤6%, and the penetration rate of sodium chloride and oily particles of FFP3 are ≤1%.
The standard inhalation resistance is tested at two flows. When the detection flow rate is 30L / min, the suction resistance of FFP1 is ≤0.6mbar, the suction resistance of FFP2 is ≤0.7mbar, and the suction resistance of FFP3 is ≤1.0mbar; when the detection flow rate is 95L / min, the suction resistance of FFP1 is ≤2.1 mbar, the suction resistance of FFP2 is ≤2.4mbar, and the suction resistance of FFP3 is ≤3.0mbar. The expiratory resistance is measured at a flow rate of 160L / min. The expiratory resistance of FFP1, FFP2, and FFP3 are all ≤3.0mbar.
2.3 American Medical Mask Standard ASTM F2100-2004
Low level indicators require BFE≥95%, differential pressure <4.0mmH2O, hemodialysis 80mmHg; Moderate level indicators require BFE≥98%, differential pressure <5.0mmH2O, PFE≥98%, hemodialysis 120mmHg; High The index requirements are BFE ≥98%, pressure difference <5.0mmH2O, PFE ≥98%, and hemodialysis 160mmHg.
2.4 EU Medical Mask Standard EN14683-2014
标准 The standard is classified according to filtration efficiency. The requirement of TYPE Ⅰa is BFE ≥ 95%, and the pressure difference is <29.4 Pa, a represents that this material can only be used for patients and allergic people; the specification of TYPE Ⅱ is BFE ≥ 98%, and the pressure difference is <29.4 Pa, Hemodialysis 120mmHg. The standard BFE test flow is 28.3L / min;
The differential pressure test flow is 8L / min, and the test area is 4.9cm2.

Confirmed 2019-nCoV Cases Globally Global Map

Confirmed 2019-nCoV Cases Globally Global Map

Confirmed 2019-nCoV Cases Globally Global Map

Locations with Confirmed 2019-nCoV Cases

  • China
  • Hong Kong
  • Macau
  • Taiwan
  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Cambodia
  • Canada
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • India
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Malaysia
  • Nepal
  • Philippines
  • Russia
  • Sri Lanka
  • Singapore
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Thailand
  • The Republic of Korea
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Vietnam

2020 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in the U.S.

CDC is closely monitoring an outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel (new) coronavirus named 2019-nCoV. The outbreak first started in Wuhan, China, but cases have been identified in a growing number of other international locations, including the United States. This page will be updated regularly on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.

People Under Investigation (PUI) in the United States*†
People under Investigation (PUI) in the United States
Positive 12
Negative 225
Pending§ 100
Total 337

*Cumulative since January 21, 2020.
† Numbers closed out at 7 p.m. the night before reporting.
§Includes specimens received and awaiting testing, as well as specimens in route to CDC.

Number of states and territories with PUI: 36

States with confirmed 2019-nCoV cases

States with confirmed 2019-nCoV cases

States with confirmed 2019-nCoV cases

2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Summary

2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

CDC is closely monitoring an outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel (new) coronavirus (named “2019-nCoV”) that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which continues to expand. Chinese health officials have reported tens of thousands of infections with 2019-nCoV in China, with the virus reportedly spreading from person-to-person in parts of that country. Infections with 2019-nCoV, most of them associated with travel from Wuhan, also are being reported in a growing number of international locations, including the United States. Some person-to-person spread of this virus outside China has been detected. The United States reported the first confirmed instance of person-to-person spread with this virus on January 30, 2020.

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to 2019-nCoV. Also on January 31, the President of the United States signed a presidential “Proclamation on Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons who Pose a Risk of Transmitting 2019 Novel Coronavirusexternal icon“. These measures were announced at a press briefing by members of the President’s Coronavirus Task Forceexternal icon.

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS, SARS, and now with 2019-nCoV.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Chinese health authorities were the first to post the full genome of the 2019-nCoV in GenBankexternal icon, the NIH genetic sequence database, and in the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAIDexternal icon) portal, an action which has facilitated detection of this virus. CDC is posting the full genome of the 2019-nCoV viruses detected in U.S. patients to GenBank as sequencing is completed.

2019-nCoV is a betacoronavirus, like MERS and SARs, both of which have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the outbreak of respiratory illness caused by 2019-nCoV in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other countries. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of 2019-nCoV infection in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of 2019-nCoV also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

The U.S. government has taken unprecedented stepsexternal icon related to travel in response to the growing public health threat posed by this new coronavirus, including suspending entry in the United States of foreign nationals who have visited China within the past 14 days. Measures to detect this virus among those who are allowed entry into the United States (U.S. citizens, residents and family) who have been in China within 14 days also are being implemented.

Illness Severity
Both MERS and SARS have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to 2019-nCoV is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with 2019-nCoV.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other meas